In patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, risk stratification according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center or the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium classification systems is a crucial part of clinical assessment and essential for guiding management. New research has now demonstrated that disagreement in risk-group classification is common and prognostically relevant.

In type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes), the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce enough, or the insulin does not work properly. Nine out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2. This type occurs most often in people who are over 40 years old but can occur even in childhood if there are risk factors present. Type 2 diabetes may sometimes be controlled with a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. However, treatment also may include oral glucose-lowering medications (taken by mouth) or insulin injections (shots).
Radiation therapy is used in about half of cases. The radiation can be either from internal sources (brachytherapy) or external sources. The radiation is most commonly low energy x-rays for treating skin cancers, while higher energy x-rays are used for cancers within the body.[154] Radiation is typically used in addition to surgery and or chemotherapy. For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer, it may be used alone.[155] For painful bone metastasis, it has been found to be effective in about 70% of patients.[155]
The card will be valid for two years from the date it is issued. The expiration date will be printed on the front of the card. After that time, you will need to again consult with your physician and request that they update and confirm your information into the registry. Please plan to allow 15 business days to process your information, print your card and have it ready for pick-up from the closest of the 20 Public Health Offices approved to distribute them to the address you list as your residence in the registry. 
Earlier and accurate diagnosis can help to prevent irreversible damage and disability. Properly guided programs of exercise and rest, medications, physical therapy, and surgery options can idealize long-term outcomes for those with arthritis. Exercise and exercise routines can be helpful in providing joint stability by strengthening the musculoskeletal system while improving balance. Physical therapists can provide the care needed for properly guided exercise regimens.
Rheumatoid warning signs can represent a worsening or complications of the rheumatoid disease, side effects of medications, or a new illness that is complicating the condition of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis should be aware of these rheumatoid warning signs so that they can contact their health care practitioner before their health is jeopardized.
Anna Syreeni, Niina Sandholm, Jingjing Cao, Iiro Toppila, David M. Maahs, Marian J. Rewers, Janet K. Snell-Bergeon, Tina Costacou, Trevor J. Orchard, M. Luiza Caramori, Michael Mauer, Barbara E.K. Klein, Ronald Klein, Erkka Valo, Maija Parkkonen, Carol Forsblom, Valma Harjutsalo, Andrew D. Paterson, for the DCCT/EDIC Research Group and Per-Henrik Groop, on behalf of the FinnDiane Study Group
Hash oil seized in the 1970s had a THC content ranging from 10% to 30%. The oil available on the U.S. West Coast in 1974 averaged about 15% THC.[2] Samples seized across the United States by the Drug Enforcement Administration over an 18-year period (1980–1997) showed that THC content in hashish and hashish oil averaging 12.9% and 17.4%, respectively, did not show an increase over time.[4] The highest THC concentrations measured were 52.9% in hashish and 47.0% in hash oil.[5] Hash oils in use in the 2010s had THC concentrations as high as 90%[6][7] and other products achieving higher concentrations [8]

After fighting the effects of thyroid cancerfor 12 years I wanted to die. Every day. Now, please understand that these were thoughts with no actions, I was just miserable in pain.After 1 week on the CBD oil, (5 drops under the toungue 2x per day) I am a different woman. I now have hope. Some of my emotional pain is presenting as physical pain, but IT'S LEAVING MY BODY.
I am very interested in trying one of these CBD oils. I’m not too familiar with them, other than a few things I researched. But I’ve never tried any before. I have congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis of the liver. I have really bad stomach pain/nausea most of the time to where I can’t even get out of bed! Also muscle and joint pain, anxiety/panic attacks, and depression. I’m hoping that I’ve found something that will help with these awful symptoms. If anyone could please help me with choosing the best CBD oil to start with it would be greatly appreciated!! So far I think I’m leaning more towards the PureKana, but haven’t looked into the prices yet. Any recommendations please and thank you?!
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.
A Cancer man is conservative just enough to know that initiative is important, but often fails to show it before he feels safe to do so. His partners need to make the first move, but still doing it subtly to let him still feel like he is leading the way. This is a complex individual, very sensitive, shy and overly protective of his loved ones. When he prefers women, he will subconsciously search for the ideal wife and mother.
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”

The Arthritis Foundation is the only national voluntary health organization whose purpose is directed solely to all forms of arthritis. The Arthritis Foundation has national and international programs involving support for scientific research, public information and education for affected patients and their families, training of specialists, public awareness, and local community assistance. Local branch chapters of the Arthritis Foundation serve to disseminate information about arthritis and rheumatic diseases as well as functioning as referral centers. Moreover, many of the various forms of arthritis have their own foundations that serve as information and referral resources for local communities.
Hemp oil — obtained by pressing benefit-rich hemp seeds — is slightly different than cannabis oil, although they both come from the same genus, Cannabis, and the same species, Cannabis Sativa. The term hemp is used to describe a Cannabis Sativa plant that contains only trace amounts of THC. Hemp is a high-growing plant that’s commonly grown for industrial uses, such as oils and topical ointments, as well as fiber for clothing, construction, paper and more.
Survival rates vary by cancer type and by the stage at which it is diagnosed, ranging from majority survival to complete mortality five years after diagnosis. Once a cancer has metastasized, prognosis normally becomes much worse. About half of patients receiving treatment for invasive cancer (excluding carcinoma in situ and non-melanoma skin cancers) die from that cancer or its treatment.[22]
Diabetes can occur temporarily during pregnancy, and reports suggest that it occurs in 2% to 10% of all pregnancies. Significant hormonal changes during pregnancy can lead to blood sugar elevation in genetically predisposed individuals. Blood sugar elevation during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually resolves once the baby is born. However, 35% to 60% of women with gestational diabetes will eventually develop type 2 diabetes over the next 10 to 20 years, especially in those who require insulin during pregnancy and those who remain overweight after their delivery. Women with gestational diabetes are usually asked to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test about six weeks after giving birth to determine if their diabetes has persisted beyond the pregnancy, or if any evidence (such as impaired glucose tolerance) is present that may be a clue to a risk for developing diabetes.
There are many things that can be done to preserve joint function, mobility and quality of life. Learning about the disease and treatment options, making time for physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight are essential. Arthritis is a commonly misunderstood disease. The Arthritis Foundation is the only nonprofit organization dedicated to serving all people with arthritis. Its website, arthritis.org, has many resources for learning about arthritis, practical tips for daily living and more.
After this devastating news, the family researched cannabinoids and found that they have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumor cells in culture and in animal models by modulating key cell-signaling pathways. Her family read that cannabinoids are usually well-tolerated and do not produce the generalized toxic effects of conventional chemotherapies. The family found promise in an organization that treated several cancers with cannabis oil.
A report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published in the journal Pediatrics cautions pregnant women and nursing mothers to avoid marijuana use due to possible adverse developmental effects to their baby. In a study reviewed for the report, short-term exposure to CBD was found to increase the permeability of the placental barrier, potentially placing the fetus at risk from certain substances.
Gout is a particular type of metabolic arthritis that is clearly diet-related. Foods that are high in purines, especially red meats and shellfish, can worsen the condition. Moreover, certain foods elevate the levels of uric acid, including alcohol (especially beer) and those foods containing high amounts of fructose (such as the corn syrup found in soft drinks). For people with celiac disease, gluten-containing foods (wheat, barley, rye) can worsen joint pains.
While the only current FDA-approved use of cannabidiol oil is for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, it is impossible not to ignore the statements made in this U.S. government patent (or similar statements made in dozens of other scientific publications), or to ignore the fact that the federal Department of Health holds a patent for the medical use of active cannabinoids.
Weight loss. Cancer and cancer treatment may cause weight loss. Cancer steals food from normal cells and deprives them of nutrients. This is often not affected by how many calories or what kind of food is eaten; it's difficult to treat. In most cases, using artificial nutrition through tubes into the stomach or vein does not help change the weight loss.
By 1942, cannabis was removed from the U.S. Pharmacopoeia because of persistent concerns about its potential to cause harm. In 1951, Congress passed the Boggs Act, which included cannabis with narcotic drugs for the first time. In 1970, with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act, cannabis was classified as a Schedule I drug, giving it no accepted medicinal use.

Fasting blood sugar test. This test is usually done in the morning, after an 8-hour fast (not eating or drinking anything except water for 8 hours before the test). The blood test involves inserting a small needle into a vein in your arm to withdraw blood. That blood will be sent to a lab for testing. If your blood sugar level is 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher, your doctor will probably want to repeat the test. A blood sugar level of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher on 2 occasions indicates diabetes. Test results from 100 mg per dL to 125 mg per dL suggest
Weight loss. Cancer and cancer treatment may cause weight loss. Cancer steals food from normal cells and deprives them of nutrients. This is often not affected by how many calories or what kind of food is eaten; it's difficult to treat. In most cases, using artificial nutrition through tubes into the stomach or vein does not help change the weight loss.

for other general statements see Smith TJ, Hillner BE (May 2011). "Bending the cost curve in cancer care". The New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (21): 2060–5. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1013826. PMC 4042405. PMID 21612477. and Peppercorn JM, Smith TJ, Helft PR, Debono DJ, Berry SR, Wollins DS, Hayes DM, Von Roenn JH, Schnipper LE (February 2011). "American society of clinical oncology statement: toward individualized care for patients with advanced cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 29 (6): 755–60. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.33.1744. PMID 21263086.
In the future, medications may be available that can protect the cartilage from the deteriorating consequences of osteoarthritis. New treatments, such as antiinflammatory lotion and patches (diclofenac [Flector]) are becoming available for relief of joint pain symptoms. Innovative cartilage research will open the door for new approaches to an old problem. Investigators are evaluating the effectiveness of over-the-counter food supplements. Better treatment options are being developed as we understand more about our immune system and genetics.

Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter region of a gene and affect its expression, or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants.


Symptoms of arthritis include pain and limited function of joints. Joint inflammation from arthritis is characterized by joint stiffness, swelling, redness, pain, and warmth. Tenderness of the inflamed joint can be present with or without pain. When large joints are involved, such as the knee, there can be loss of cartilage with limitation of motion from the joint damage. When arthritis affects the small joints in fingers, there can be bone growth and loss of hand grip and grip strength of the hand.
As scientists have learned more about the molecular changes that lead to cancer, they have found that certain mutations commonly occur in many types of cancer. Because of this, cancers are sometimes characterized by the types of genetic alterations that are believed to be driving them, not just by where they develop in the body and how the cancer cells look under the microscope.
The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) and desipramine (Norpraminine) are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain, they are used by physicians commonly.

How does high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) feel? To maintain the right amount of blood sugar, the body needs insulin, a hormone that delivers this sugar to the cells. When insulin is lacking, blood sugar builds up. We describe symptoms of high blood sugar, including fatigue, weight loss, and frequent urination. Learn who is at risk and when to see a doctor here. Read now


Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. For example, a benign tumor of smooth muscle cells is called a leiomyoma (the common name of this frequently occurring benign tumor in the uterus is fibroid). Confusingly, some types of cancer use the -noma suffix, examples including melanoma and seminoma.
Rash: Rashes can occur for many reasons in anybody. However, in people with rheumatoid arthritis, the medications or, rarely, the disease itself can cause rashes. Medications used in the treatment of arthritis that commonly cause rashes as side effects include gold (Solganal, Myochrysine), methotrexate, leflunomide (Arava), and hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil). A rare, and serious, complication of rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis), which can cause rash that most commonly appears in the fingertips, toes, or legs.
Cancers are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ or tissue of origin as the root. For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma, while a malignancy arising from primitive liver precursor cells is called a hepatoblastoma and a cancer arising from fat cells is called a liposarcoma. For some common cancers, the English organ name is used. For example, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast. Here, the adjective ductal refers to the appearance of cancer under the microscope, which suggests that it has originated in the milk ducts.
Arthritis diagnosis often begins with a primary care physician, who performs a physical exam and may do blood tests and imaging scans to help determine the type of arthritis. An arthritis specialist, or rheumatologist, should be involved if the diagnosis is uncertain or if the arthritis may be inflammatory. Rheumatologists typically manage ongoing treatment for inflammatory arthritis, gout and other complicated cases. Orthopaedic surgeons do joint surgery, including joint replacements. When the arthritis affects other body systems or parts, other specialists, such as ophthalmologists, dermatologists or dentists, may also be included in the health care team.
Since it started becoming popular roughly two years or so ago, the general consensus has always been that since CBD oil from top brands does not contain the psychoactive properties of THC, it is therefore legal. Unfortunately, its legality is much more nuanced because of conflicting federal laws and new court cases. What is clear is that in one of the most recent court decisions on the topic, Hemp Industries Assoc. v. DEA, which came out on April 30, 2018, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found that Section 7606 of the 2014 US Farm Bill (the “Farm Bill”) preempts the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the federal law which designates marijuana as a Schedule I substance (along with heroin and cocaine) making it illegal to possess or use. This means that when there is conflict between the CSA and the Farm Bill, the Farm Bill wins out.
Since it started becoming popular roughly two years or so ago, the general consensus has always been that since CBD oil from top brands does not contain the psychoactive properties of THC, it is therefore legal. Unfortunately, its legality is much more nuanced because of conflicting federal laws and new court cases. What is clear is that in one of the most recent court decisions on the topic, Hemp Industries Assoc. v. DEA, which came out on April 30, 2018, the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found that Section 7606 of the 2014 US Farm Bill (the “Farm Bill”) preempts the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the federal law which designates marijuana as a Schedule I substance (along with heroin and cocaine) making it illegal to possess or use. This means that when there is conflict between the CSA and the Farm Bill, the Farm Bill wins out.
The patient continued to use cannabis oil for 65 days. The family changed strains of the oil repeatedly, and some were more effective in increasing appetite and alleviating pain than others. The author of the case report suggests that cannabis oil needs to be explored further because there is potential that cannabinoids might show selectivity when attacking cancer cells, thereby reducing the widespread cytotoxic effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Sadly, the young girl with ALL passed away due to gastrointestinal bleeding and a bowel perforation.
The improved understanding of molecular biology and cellular biology due to cancer research has led to new treatments for cancer since US President Richard Nixon declared the "War on Cancer" in 1971. Since then, the country has spent over $200 billion on cancer research, including resources from public and private sectors.[213] The cancer death rate (adjusting for size and age of the population) declined by five percent between 1950 and 2005.[214]
The major eye complication of diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy occurs in patients who have had diabetes for at least five years. Diseased small blood vessels in the back of the eye cause the leakage of protein and blood in the retina. Disease in these blood vessels also causes the formation of small aneurysms (microaneurysms), and new but brittle blood vessels (neovascularization). Spontaneous bleeding from the new and brittle blood vessels can lead to retinal scarring and retinal detachment, thus impairing vision.
The Nature Research editors who handle cancer primary research, methods, protocols and reviews bring you the latest articles, covering all aspects from disease mechanisms to therapeutic approaches. Collected here you will also find specially curated content, such as collections, focus issues and animations, all ready to be used in presentations and educational materials. You can also find out about the editors handling cancer contents, and the journals at Nature Research that publish articles on this topic and how to submit to them.
Tobacco is responsible for about one in five cancer deaths worldwide[36] and about one in three in the developed world.[37] Lung cancer death rates in the United States have mirrored smoking patterns, with increases in smoking followed by dramatic increases in lung cancer death rates and, more recently, decreases in smoking rates since the 1950s followed by decreases in lung cancer death rates in men since 1990.[38][39]
How does high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) feel? To maintain the right amount of blood sugar, the body needs insulin, a hormone that delivers this sugar to the cells. When insulin is lacking, blood sugar builds up. We describe symptoms of high blood sugar, including fatigue, weight loss, and frequent urination. Learn who is at risk and when to see a doctor here. Read now
People with hand arthritis can have trouble with simple activities of daily living tasks (ADLs), such as turning a key in a lock or opening jars, as these activities can be cumbersome and painful. There are adaptive aids or (assistive devices (ADs)) available to help with these tasks,[48] but they are generally more costly than conventional products with the same function. It is now possible to 3-D print adaptive aids, which have been released as open source hardware to reduce patient costs.[49][50] Adaptive aids can significantly help arthritis patients and the vast majority of those with arthritis need and use them.[51]
^ Islami F, Goding Sauer A, Miller KD, Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Jacobs EJ, McCullough ML, Patel AV, Ma J, Soerjomataram I, Flanders WD, Brawley OW, Gapstur SM, Jemal A (January 2018). "Proportion and number of cancer cases and deaths attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in the United States". Ca. 68 (1): 31–54. doi:10.3322/caac.21440. PMID 29160902.
Imaging studies are commonly used to help physicians detect abnormalities in the body that may be cancer. X-rays, CT and MRI scans, and ultrasound are common tools used to examine the body. Other tests such as endoscopy, which with variations in the equipment used, can allow visualization of tissues in the intestinal tract, throat, and bronchi that may be cancerous. In areas that cannot be well visualized (inside bones or some lymph nodes, for example), radionuclide scanning is often used. The test involves ingestion or IV injection of a weakly radioactive substance that can be concentrated and detected in abnormal tissue.
Stephanie, generally, I have patients take 20 to 150mg a day for sleep +/- anxiety. Start low and go slow. Know the dosages of your product. Usually 2/3 to 3/4 of the daily dose is 1-2 hours before bedtime, and the other portion is upon waking (to improve wakefulness during the day). Other factors such as stress, hormone replacement, other meds & medical conditions, etc. play a role along with individual differences. I own a compounding pharmacy, so we see a lot of unique needs. I can't give more specific advice in this forum, but there is help!
Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
I don’t no anything about these drops or how they would work for my pain I have RA bad it’s 8n my lower back,between my shoulders up in the back of my neck,in my hands,in my knees I need something that’s really going to help me I take medicine for my pain at times it doesn’t work so I stay in the bed most of the time I need something that’s going to help me. With my pain

Cannabis oil is a thick, sticky, resinous substance made up of cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, that is extracted from the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica). Cannabis oil is a cannabis based product  obtained by separating the resins from cannabis flowers using a solvent extraction process. Cannabis oil can also be known as marijuana oil, Rick Simpson Oil (RSO), Full extract cannbais oil (FECO), hash oil, dabs, shatter, or wax.  
Mike, what kind of breast cancer (invasive ductal, I presume)? How many of her lymph nodes were positive? How big was the primary tumor? Reason I ask is that in women with Stage I or IIA tumors that are estrogen-and progesterone-receptor-positive and HER2-negative (ER+/PR+/HER2-) with three or fewer positive lymph nodes, there is a genomic assay test on a sample of the tumor, called OncotypeDX, that will tell doctors whether chemo is necessary or would even work at all. Medicare covers that test 100%.That type of breast cancer mentioned above, which I had as Stage IA, is treated in postmenopausal women with anti-estrogen drugs called aromatase inhibitors(aka AIs: anastrazole, letrozole, or exemestane)which have as a side effect joint pain. CBD oil is effective for this joint pain it is not, I repeat, NOT a substitute for chemo, radiation or these anti-estrogen drugs.So don’t assume your mom’s cancer will require chemo; but if it does, CBD helps with those side effects as well. If she lives in a state where medical marijuana is legal, there are doctors who sub-specialize in certifying applications for a medical marijuana card, and in the interim before the card is issued can advise as to the appropriate dose of CBD oil (legal and over-the-counter in all 50 states). Some (though not most) medical oncologists will certify their own patients’ medical marijuana card applications so she need not seek out another doctor; and will advise the appropriate dose for her symptoms. Once she gets her card, the “budtenders” in the licensed dispensaries can advise her as to the right CBD product (with or without THC), strength, and dosage. If she lives in a state where recreational weed is legal, the “budtenders” in the marijuana shops can steer her to the right strength of CBD oil and the right dosage.
DISCLAIMER: The statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All information presented here is not meant as a substitute for or alternative to information from healthcare practitioners. Please consult your healthcare professional about potential interactions or other complications before using any product.
Cancer has existed for all of human history.[183] The earliest written record regarding cancer is from circa 1600 BC in the Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus and describes breast cancer.[183] Hippocrates (c. 460 BC – c. 370 BC) described several kinds of cancer, referring to them with the Greek word καρκίνος karkinos (crab or crayfish).[183] This name comes from the appearance of the cut surface of a solid malignant tumor, with "the veins stretched on all sides as the animal the crab has its feet, whence it derives its name".[184] Galen stated that "cancer of the breast is so called because of the fancied resemblance to a crab given by the lateral prolongations of the tumor and the adjacent distended veins".[185]:738 Celsus (c. 25 BC – 50 AD) translated karkinos into the Latin cancer, also meaning crab and recommended surgery as treatment.[183] Galen (2nd century AD) disagreed with the use of surgery and recommended purgatives instead.[183] These recommendations largely stood for 1000 years.[183]
CA 125 is a protein, and a tumor marker or biomarker. CA 125 is present in greater concentration in ovarian cancer cells than in other cells. CA stands for cancer antigen. Increases in CA 125 can also occur with malignant tumors of the Fallopian tubes, lining of the uterus, lung, breast, and gastrointestinal track. Benign conditions such as infections of the abdomen, chest, menstruation, endometriosis, benign tumors of the ovaries, and liver disease can also raise CA 125.
Most human studies of CBD have been done on people who have seizures, and the FDA recently approved the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, for rare forms of epilepsy. Clinical trials for other conditions are promising, but tiny. In one Brazilian study published in 2011 of people with generalized social anxiety disorder, for example, taking a 600-mg dose of CBD (higher than a typical dose from a tincture) lessened discomfort more than a placebo, but only a dozen people were given the pill.
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