To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks, and when it's around for a long time, it's harder to get it off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die off. When sugar sticks to these hemoglobin proteins in these cells, it is known as glycosylated hemoglobin or hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c). Measurement of HBA1c gives us an idea of how much sugar is present in the bloodstream for the preceding three months. In most labs, the normal range is 4%-5.9 %. In poorly controlled diabetes, its 8.0% or above, and in well controlled patients it's less than 7.0% (optimal is <6.5%). The benefits of measuring A1c is that is gives a more reasonable and stable view of what's happening over the course of time (three months), and the value does not vary as much as finger stick blood sugar measurements. There is a direct correlation between A1c levels and average blood sugar levels as follows.
People with hand arthritis can have trouble with simple activities of daily living tasks (ADLs), such as turning a key in a lock or opening jars, as these activities can be cumbersome and painful. There are adaptive aids or (assistive devices (ADs)) available to help with these tasks,[48] but they are generally more costly than conventional products with the same function. It is now possible to 3-D print adaptive aids, which have been released as open source hardware to reduce patient costs.[49][50] Adaptive aids can significantly help arthritis patients and the vast majority of those with arthritis need and use them.[51]
However, switching to CBD oil from a conventional medication is far from a random stab in the dark. In fact, there was a large scale (and very well-documented) survey carried out less than two years ago that looked at precisely what percentage of patients were able to “swap” their side effect-inducing meds for a 100% natural, cannabis-based therapy.
These cannabinoid-rich extracts can pose risks to patients who consume them. The exact composition of different available oils is frequently unknown. They are not checked for quality by external certified laboratories for the presence of residual solvents, or contaminants such as microbes, pesticides, heavy metals or mycotoxins. The lack of standardisation of both the cannabis starting material and oils makes it impossible to fully evaluate their therapeutic effects over time and, hence, their medicinal value.
Can’t sleep? Cannabis oil also works for people with insomnia. The calming effects of the oil help people to sleep calmly, relieving issues of anxiety and restlessness. A 2015 scientific review published in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy found that cannabis treatment is effective for military veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests that cannabinoids, the psychoactive components of unrefined cannabis, regulates neurotransmitter release and produces a wide range of central nervous system effects, including increased pleasure and alteration of memory processes.
Epigenetic alterations are functionally relevant modifications to the genome that do not change the nucleotide sequence. Examples of such modifications are changes in DNA methylation (hypermethylation and hypomethylation), histone modification[78] and changes in chromosomal architecture (caused by inappropriate expression of proteins such as HMGA2 or HMGA1).[79] Each of these alterations regulates gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence. These changes may remain through cell divisions, last for multiple generations and can be considered to be epimutations (equivalent to mutations).
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases characterized by the growth of abnormal cells beyond their usual boundaries that can then invade adjoining parts of the body and/or spread to other organs. Other common terms used are malignant tumours and neoplasms. Cancer can affect almost any part of the body and has many anatomic and molecular subtypes that each require specific management strategies.

Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Some may involve hormone therapy, immunotherapy or other types of biologic therapy, or stem cell transplantation.


The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis.[108] The disease was considered rare during the time of the Roman empire, with Galen commenting he had only seen two cases during his career.[108] This is possibly due to the diet and lifestyle of the ancients, or because the clinical symptoms were observed during the advanced stage of the disease. Galen named the disease "diarrhea of the urine" (diarrhea urinosa).[110]
Decreased mobility, in combination with the above symptoms, can make it difficult for an individual to remain physically active, contributing to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease.[24] People with arthritis are also at increased risk of depression, which may be a response to numerous factors, including fear of worsening symptoms.[25]

There are many forms of arthritis (over 100 have been described so far, and the number is growing). The forms range from those related to wear and tear of cartilage (such as osteoarthritis) to those associated with inflammation as a result of an overactive immune system (such as rheumatoid arthritis). Together, the many forms of arthritis make up the most common chronic illness in the United States.
Generalized pain, for instance, has dozens upon dozens of high profile research and clinical studies that have been carried out in universities and laboratories around the globe. One of the most well-publicized of these studies took place back in 2008, in which results determined that “cannabinoid analgesics (pain relievers) have generally been well tolerated in clinical trials … with acceptable adverse event profiles (meaning acceptable effectiveness for practical use).
While formulating a treatment plan to manage the physical aspects is the first priority after you are diagnosed, you will learn over time to cope with how arthritis impacts your life. Healthy habits, including compliance with your treatment plan, eating and sleeping well, avoiding stress, regular exercise, and maintaining your ideal weight, will help you live well with arthritis.
As a first step, rest, heat/cold applications, and topical pain creams can be helpful. For osteoarthritis, the over-the-counter food supplements glucosamine and chondroitin have been helpful for some, though their benefits are still controversial according to national research studies. These supplements are available in pharmacies and health-food stores without a prescription. If patients do not benefit after a three-month trial, I tell them that they may discontinue these supplements. The manufacturers sometimes make claims that these supplements "rebuild" cartilage. This claim has not been adequately verified by scientific studies to date.
Effective therapy can prevent or delay diabetic complications.1,2 However, about 28 percent of Americans with DM are undiagnosed, and another 86 million American adults have blood glucose levels that greatly increase their risk of developing type 2 DM in the next several years.3 Diabetes complications tend to be more common and more severe among people whose diabetes is poorly controlled, which makes DM an immense and complex public health challenge. Preventive care practices are essential to better health outcomes for people with diabetes.4
Wondering where to buy cannabis oil? Look for a reputable company that sells its products legally (according to your specific state laws) with full transparency and accountability. It’s very important to make sure any cannabis oil you purchase has been tested by accredited laboratories to ensure that is is free of pesticides, residual solvents (from the extraction process), bacteria, fungus, foreign matter and heavy metals.
S-Adenylmethionine (SAMe) is another naturally occurring molecule in the body, and has been found to stimulate cartilage growth and repair. A deficiency of SAMe in the joint may contribute to cartilage degeneration.  It has been compared to ibuprofen, and found to be as effective and better tolerated.  Dosage range is 400 to 1600 mg daily in divided doses; with 600 mg twice a day being most common. SAMe works slower than NSAIDs and should be tried for at least 4 weeks.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[42] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[43] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[44] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[45] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[46][47][48]
It’s thought that CBD might affect your health by attaching to receptors in the body’s endocannabinoid system—a complex biological system involved in maintaining certain aspects of your health. Emerging research shows that endocannabinoids may play a role in regulating such functions as memory, sleep, and mood, as well as metabolic processes like energy balance. In addition, CBD oil may play a role in improving a variety of health conditions.
^ Ahlqvist, Emma; Storm, Petter; Käräjämäki, Annemari; Martinell, Mats; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; Carlsson, Annelie; Vikman, Petter; Prasad, Rashmi B; Aly, Dina Mansour (2018). "Novel subgroups of adult-onset diabetes and their association with outcomes: a data-driven cluster analysis of six variables". The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 0 (5): 361–69. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(18)30051-2. ISSN 2213-8587. PMID 29503172.
In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.[100]

^ Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I (February 2010). "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials". Lancet. 375 (9716): 735–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61965-6. PMID 20167359.
One important thing to clarify is that CBD can be found either in Cannabis plants or hemp. Hemp and marijuana oil fall under the same genus, Cannabis. So marijuana oil refers to either the Cannabis Sativa or Indica plants that are cultivated and grown to produce resinous trichomes. These trichomes contain high levels of tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, so these plants are bred for their psychoactive qualities.
Weight loss. Cancer and cancer treatment may cause weight loss. Cancer steals food from normal cells and deprives them of nutrients. This is often not affected by how many calories or what kind of food is eaten; it's difficult to treat. In most cases, using artificial nutrition through tubes into the stomach or vein does not help change the weight loss.
Truth be told, one of the biggest draws to using CBD oil for pain has been the fact that it has little distinguishable side-effects or contraindications with other medications. In fact, in a massive report that was published by the World Health Organization during last year’s 2017 Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, it was (finally) declared to the world that CBD is a “safe, well tolerated [compound, which] is not associated with any significant adverse public health effects.”

Medterra 500 mg CBD Tincture Isolate (tasteless) micro dosing is working for me! I was drawn to this company because its grown in Kentucky, close to home. After this 60 yr old lady was diagnosed with Fibromyalgia some 20+ yrs ago Im having less muscle pain, increased energy, breathing better, & more restful sleep. Wish I had known about this product years ago! Getting ready to place my 2nd order.
The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e.g. ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans.[123]
Based on history cannabis is believed to have originated from Central Asia. Cannabis is one of the oldest plant medicines known to man. It is difficult to trace the beginnings of cannabis use use by humans because it was cultivated and consumed long before the appearance of writing. According to archeological discoveries, cannabis has been known in China since the Neolithic period, around 4000 BC.
^ Levy MH, Back A, Bazargan S, Benedetti C, Billings JA, Block S, Bruera E, Carducci MA, Dy S, Eberle C, Foley KM, Harris JD, Knight SJ, Milch R, Rhiner M, Slatkin NE, Spiegel D, Sutton L, Urba S, Von Roenn JH, Weinstein SM (September 2006). "Palliative care. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology". Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. 4 (8): 776–818. PMID 16948956.
Diet, physical inactivity and obesity are related to up to 30–35% of cancer deaths.[3][43] In the United States, excess body weight is associated with the development of many types of cancer and is a factor in 14–20% of cancer deaths.[43] A UK study including data on over 5 million people showed higher body mass index to be related to at least 10 types of cancer and responsible for around 12,000 cases each year in that country.[44] Physical inactivity is believed to contribute to cancer risk, not only through its effect on body weight but also through negative effects on the immune system and endocrine system.[43] More than half of the effect from diet is due to overnutrition (eating too much), rather than from eating too few vegetables or other healthful foods.
CBD oils may contain some THC. Cannabis may impair your ability to drive safely or operate equipment and may have short- and long-term effects on your memory, attention, mood, heart rate, and mental health. It is also easy to overconsume CBD oil, so it's important to start with a low dose, as it may take several hours or longer to begin to feel the effects after consumption.

There are two major types of diabetes, called type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes was also formerly called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas undergoes an autoimmune attack by the body itself, and is rendered incapable of making insulin. Abnormal antibodies have been found in the majority of patients with type 1 diabetes. Antibodies are proteins in the blood that are part of the body's immune system. The patient with type 1 diabetes must rely on insulin medication for survival.
While formulating a treatment plan to manage the physical aspects is the first priority after you are diagnosed, you will learn over time to cope with how arthritis impacts your life. Healthy habits, including compliance with your treatment plan, eating and sleeping well, avoiding stress, regular exercise, and maintaining your ideal weight, will help you live well with arthritis.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
31 January 2019 ¦ GENEVA: Ahead of World Cancer Day (4 February), the World Health Organization (WHO) has released new guidance on managing cancer pain, with a view to improving the health sector response and ending the needless suffering of cancer patients. Around the world, pain is experienced by more than half (55%) of patients undergoing treatment for cancer and two thirds (66%) of people with advanced or terminal cancer. The WHO Guidelines for the pharmacologic and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain in adults and adolescents provide evidence-based guidance to health-care providers on appropriate approaches to the medical and radiotherapeutic management of cancer pain. This includes guidance on the choice of analgesic medicines (painkillers); the use of adjuvant medicines (steroids), and specific techniques for treating pain from bone metastases (bisphosphonates and radiotherapy).
Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin. As yet, there is no cure. People with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy.
As more and more states legalize the use of marijuana, a product known as CBD oil has surged in popularity. A chemical compound found in the cannabis plant, CBD, or cannabidiol, is non-intoxicating and does not cause the noticeable euphoric effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC, another marijuana compound). Products marketed as CBD oil may contain THC.
While formulating a treatment plan to manage the physical aspects is the first priority after you are diagnosed, you will learn over time to cope with how arthritis impacts your life. Healthy habits, including compliance with your treatment plan, eating and sleeping well, avoiding stress, regular exercise, and maintaining your ideal weight, will help you live well with arthritis.
For persisting pain of severe osteoarthritis of the knee that does not respond to weight reduction, exercise, or medications, a series of injections of hyaluronic acid (Synvisc, Hyalgan, and others) into the joint can sometimes be helpful, especially if surgery is not being considered. These products seem to work by temporarily restoring the thickness of the joint fluid, allowing better joint lubrication and impact capability, and perhaps by directly affecting pain receptors.
During the holidays last?year, Nancy and Brent Berry of Danbury, Iowa, went on a train ride with their children and grandchildren, after a?two-hour car ride to get there. They?ve been horseback riding with friends. They?re laughing, running errands together, and hosting their grandchildren for overnight stays. Not long?ago, they couldn't enjoy any of those activities. [...]
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Cancer.Net offers individualized guides for more than 120 types of cancer and related hereditary syndromes. Each guide provides comprehensive, oncologist-approved information on: Introduction, Medical Illustrations, Risk Factors, Prevention, Symptoms & Signs, Diagnosis, Stages, Types of Treatment, About Clinical Trials, Latest Research, Coping with Treatment, Follow-Up Care, Survivorship, Questions to Ask the Health Care Team, and Additional Resources.
Unfortunately, there is little oversight for manufacturing hemp-derived CBD products, which can lead to confusion and deception. Many hemp-derived products are mislabeled as to CBD and THC content. And poorly processed CBD oil may be contaminated with dangerous solvent and pesticide residues, thinning agents, corn syrup, artificial flavors and colors, and other toxins.
Because CBD oil products are mostly unregulated, there’s no guarantee that any given product contains a safe or effective level of CBD. In fact, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2017 found that nearly 70 percent of all CBD products sold online are incorrectly labeled, and could cause serious harm to consumers. Some CBD oils may also contain incorrectly labeled amounts of THC and other compounds.
Multiple national medical guidelines recommend early palliative care for patients whose cancer has produced distressing symptoms or who need help coping with their illness. In patients first diagnosed with metastatic disease, palliative care may be immediately indicated. Palliative care is indicated for patients with a prognosis of less than 12 months of life even given aggressive treatment.[158][159][160]
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Enteropathic arthritis – a form of chronic, inflammatory arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the two best-known types being ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. About one in five people with Crohn's or ulcerative colitis will develop enteropathic arthritis. The most common areas affected by inflammation are the peripheral (limb) joints and the spine.

• What's the dosing? This is a confusing one for many people. "A lot of brands don't do a good job of clearly instructing their consumer on the dosing," says Chris Roth, CEO and co-founder of Highline Wellness. When thinking about dosing, also consider whether your CBD is full-spectrum or isolate: Full-spectrum could include other cannabinoids like cannabidivarin or cannabigerol (this is important, since "there's something called the 'entourage effect' when all together, they're more effective than any one of them alone," Roth explains), while isolate is 100% CBD. "Some people might only need 10 milligrams of full-spectrum CBD, but with isolate, even taking 80 or 100 milligrams might not have the same effect," he says.


for other general statements see Smith TJ, Hillner BE (May 2011). "Bending the cost curve in cancer care". The New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (21): 2060–5. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1013826. PMC 4042405. PMID 21612477. and Peppercorn JM, Smith TJ, Helft PR, Debono DJ, Berry SR, Wollins DS, Hayes DM, Von Roenn JH, Schnipper LE (February 2011). "American society of clinical oncology statement: toward individualized care for patients with advanced cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 29 (6): 755–60. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.33.1744. PMID 21263086.

Some specific foods are linked to specific cancers. A high-salt diet is linked to gastric cancer.[45] Aflatoxin B1, a frequent food contaminant, causes liver cancer.[45] Betel nut chewing can cause oral cancer.[45] National differences in dietary practices may partly explain differences in cancer incidence. For example, gastric cancer is more common in Japan due to its high-salt diet[46] while colon cancer is more common in the United States. Immigrant cancer profiles mirror those of their new country, often within one generation.[47]
I placed my first order well over a month ago, but wanted to wait until I could give a more accurate review of Medterras CBD tincture. Ive dealt with the pain of fibromyalgia for many years, and never wanted to take the harsh prescription drugs usually associated with the condition (the side effects seem worse than living with the condition itself!). I did a great deal of research on hemp CBD and thought Id at least give it a try. I am both surprised and pleased to report that I have found a significant difference since taking CBD. Obviously, I cant say that it will work for everyone and every condition, but I will say that at least in my case, it has improved the quality of my body movement significantly. Certainly worth a try if you are at all hesitant.
CO2 extraction is the most prevalent commercial method - as well as one of the safest ways - of separating CBD and other cannabinoids from cannabis biomass. At room temperature, carbon dioxide is a gas. But under high pressure and fluctuating temperature, CO2 liquifies while still maintaining the fluid dynamics of a gas. In this “supercritical” state, CO2 acts like a solvent, which flushes out the active ingredients from the plant matter.

How do I find CBD oil that contains no THC? I am concerned about failing a drug test but truly need the benefits CBD may provide for pain management. Is it more common in tinctures, vape products, or liquid? Should I be looking for anything specific? There is so much information I feel overwhelmed. How can I trust the sites word that it contains no THC? Any help any of you could provide would be so appreciative!
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Scott Shannon, M.D., assistant clinical professor at the University of Colorado, recently sifted through patient charts from his four-doctor practice to document CBD’s effects on anxiety. His study, as yet unpublished, found “a fairly rapid decrease in anxiety scores that appears to persist for months,” he says. But he says he can’t discount a placebo effect, especially since “there’s a lot of hype right now.”


What you need to know about chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a widespread and effective way of treating cancerous tissues in the body. Chemotherapy destroys cancer cells, but its side effects can be debilitating and hard to manage. Find out here all about chemotherapy and how it works and whether the positive results balance out with the negatives ones. Read now
^ Cole BF, Baron JA, Sandler RS, Haile RW, Ahnen DJ, Bresalier RS, McKeown-Eyssen G, Summers RW, Rothstein RI, Burke CA, Snover DC, Church TR, Allen JI, Robertson DJ, Beck GJ, Bond JH, Byers T, Mandel JS, Mott LA, Pearson LH, Barry EL, Rees JR, Marcon N, Saibil F, Ueland PM, Greenberg ER (June 2007). "Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial". JAMA. 297 (21): 2351–59. doi:10.1001/jama.297.21.2351. PMID 17551129.
In recent years, ethanol has re-emerged as a popular means of extracting cannabis oil, in general, and CBD oil, in particular. Whereas a tincture made from a cannabis extract could be equal in potency to the original flower, a concentrated version of the same tincture will be much more potent. Today, food-grade grain alcohol is a widely used solvent for creating very potent, high-quality CBD-rich oil, which is suitable for oral ingestion.
Osteoarthritis affects nearly 27 million Americans and is the most common cause of long-term disability. It is caused by degeneration of the cartilage in joints. Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, not only reduces elasticity and lubrication in the joints, but weakens muscles and loosens ligaments. This degeneration of cartilage can occur in any joints, but is most common in the knees, hips, hands, neck, and lower back.
The WHO estimates that diabetes mellitus resulted in 1.5 million deaths in 2012, making it the 8th leading cause of death.[12][101] However another 2.2 million deaths worldwide were attributable to high blood glucose and the increased risks of cardiovascular disease and other associated complications (e.g. kidney failure), which often lead to premature death and are often listed as the underlying cause on death certificates rather than diabetes.[101][104] For example, in 2017, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that diabetes resulted in 4.0 million deaths worldwide,[8] using modeling to estimate the total number of deaths that could be directly or indirectly attributed to diabetes.[8]
Dosage is important, because CBD can have side effects—the most common are tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite and weight—so it’s best not to take more than you need. As CBD becomes more prevalent, says J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., a psychiatrist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, “I’m reasonably certain new kinds of side effects will emerge.”
Take your medicine. If your diabetes can’t be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight control, your doctor may recommend medicine or insulin. Most people who have type 2 diabetes start with an oral medicine (taken by mouth). Oral medicines can make your body produce more insulin. They also help your body use the insulin it makes more efficiently. Some people need to add insulin to their bodies with insulin injections, insulin pens, or insulin pumps. Always take medicines exactly as your doctor prescribes. Oral medicine doesn’t work for everyone. It is not effective in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Insulin therapy is necessary for all people who have type 1 diabetes and for some people who have type 2 diabetes. If you need insulin, you’ll have to give yourself a shot (either with a syringe or with an insulin pen). Your doctor will tell you which kind of medicine you should take and why.
The legality of smoked cannabis and oils differs by state, with some allowing only one or the other. Likewise, some states only approved the plant for use in a limited capacity, such as for children with epileptic disorders. It continues to be classified as a Schedule I drug, making it illegal under federal stipulations. When produced from industrial hemp products, cannabis oil may be legal, but when created from a crop of medical marijuana, its status reverts back to illegal unless the state has provisions for it.
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