Diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage). This is damage to the blood vessels in your kidneys. This means your kidneys have trouble filtering out waste. Some people who have nephropathy will eventually need dialysis (a machine treatment that eliminates waste from the blood) or a kidney transplant. The risk for nephropathy is increased if you have both diabetes and high blood pressure, so it is important to control both of these conditions. Protein in the urine is usually the first sign of nephropathy. This should be checked yearly.
CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic ("high") effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[10] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, experts are working to distinguish "medical marijuana" (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from "medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[10][59]

Cancer staging is often determined by biopsy results and helps determine the cancer type and the extent of cancer spread; staging also helps caregivers determine treatment protocols. In general, in most staging methods, the higher the number assigned (usually between 0 to 4), the more aggressive the cancer type or more widespread is the cancer in the body. Staging methods differ from cancer to cancer and need to be individually discussed with your health care provider.

In sporadic cancers, deficiencies in DNA repair are occasionally caused by a mutation in a DNA repair gene but are much more frequently caused by epigenetic alterations that reduce or silence expression of DNA repair genes. This is indicated in the figure at the 3rd level. Many studies of heavy metal-induced carcinogenesis show that such heavy metals cause a reduction in expression of DNA repair enzymes, some through epigenetic mechanisms. DNA repair inhibition is proposed to be a predominant mechanism in heavy metal-induced carcinogenicity. In addition, frequent epigenetic alterations of the DNA sequences code for small RNAs called microRNAs (or miRNAs). miRNAs do not code for proteins, but can "target" protein-coding genes and reduce their expression.
Effective therapy can prevent or delay diabetic complications.1,2 However, about 28 percent of Americans with DM are undiagnosed, and another 86 million American adults have blood glucose levels that greatly increase their risk of developing type 2 DM in the next several years.3 Diabetes complications tend to be more common and more severe among people whose diabetes is poorly controlled, which makes DM an immense and complex public health challenge. Preventive care practices are essential to better health outcomes for people with diabetes.4
Heart disease and stroke. People who have diabetes are at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. The risk is even greater for people who have diabetes and smoke, have high blood pressure, have a family history of heart disease, or are overweight. Heart disease is easiest to treat when it is caught early. It is very important to see your doctor on a regular basis. He or she can test for early signs of heart disease. This includes checking cholesterol levels. If your cholesterol is higher than the recommended level, your doctor will talk to you about lifestyle changes and medicine to help get your cholesterol under control.
Type 1 diabetes occurs because the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (beta cells) are damaged. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin, so sugar cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood glucose. Type 1 is the most common form of diabetes in people who are under age 30, but it can occur at any age. Ten percent of people with diabetes are diagnosed with type 1.
Research conducted by Ethan B Russo, GW Pharmaceuticals, WA, USA, suggests that CBD oil interacts with the protein cells in the body and sends chemical signals to your brain and immune system through a number of stimuli. This helps the cells positively respond to chronic pain. This oil is regularly suggested for people with inflammation and back pain because of its painkilling quality.
Pain medications that are available over the counter, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), can be very helpful in relieving the pain symptoms of mild osteoarthritis and are often recommended as the first medication treatment. Since acetaminophen has fewer gastrointestinal side effects than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), especially in elderly patients, acetaminophen is generally the preferred initial drug given to patients with osteoarthritis.
Some states offer cannabis for medical conditions, and this may require a medical note or proof of injury and illness. You can also join a collective, which is a group of patients who grow and share medical cannabis with each other. If you are using cannabis oil, it’s so important to make sure it’s purchased through a reputable company that sells pure and lab-tested oils. If you’re wondering how to make cannabis oil, you should first make sure this is legal in your state. Some people also like to make cannabis coconut oil, which is basically cannabis-infused coconut oil.
Some substances cause cancer primarily through their physical, rather than chemical, effects.[63] A prominent example of this is prolonged exposure to asbestos, naturally occurring mineral fibers that are a major cause of mesothelioma (cancer of the serous membrane) usually the serous membrane surrounding the lungs.[63] Other substances in this category, including both naturally occurring and synthetic asbestos-like fibers, such as wollastonite, attapulgite, glass wool and rock wool, are believed to have similar effects.[63] Non-fibrous particulate materials that cause cancer include powdered metallic cobalt and nickel and crystalline silica (quartz, cristobalite and tridymite).[63] Usually, physical carcinogens must get inside the body (such as through inhalation) and require years of exposure to produce cancer.[63]
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a clinical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.[86][130][131]
In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex (a drug made with a purified form of CBD oil) in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in patients 2 years of age and older. These two epilepsy forms are known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana.
The main goal of treatment is to reduce the amount of pain you’re experiencing and prevent additional damage to the joints. You’ll learn what works best for you in terms of controlling pain. Some people find heating pads and ice packs to be soothing. Others use mobility assistance devices, like canes or walkers, to help take pressure off sore joints.
Replication of the data contained within the DNA of living cells will probabilistically result in some errors (mutations). Complex error correction and prevention is built into the process and safeguards the cell against cancer. If a significant error occurs, the damaged cell can self-destruct through programmed cell death, termed apoptosis. If the error control processes fail, then the mutations will survive and be passed along to daughter cells.
Figuring out how much CBD oil to take can feel like trying to navigate through a complicated maze. The sheer volume of CBD brands on the market can create confusion for consumers, and when you take a closer look, it’s not difficult to understand why. Not only do vendors use different source materials (CBD-rich cannabis vs. industrial hemp, different strains, etc.), but they also implement different extraction techniques .
What's to know about skin cancer and rashes? A rash can point to a mild irritation, or it could be a sign of skin cancer. It is important to find out the differences between cancerous and non-cancerous rashes, and the types of cancer that cause some rashes. This MNT Knowledge Center article can help you identify a potentially cancerous rash and seek help. Read now
Because cancer is a class of diseases,[206][207] it is unlikely that there will ever be a single "cure for cancer" any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases.[208] Angiogenesis inhibitors were once incorrectly thought to have potential as a "silver bullet" treatment applicable to many types of cancer.[209] Angiogenesis inhibitors and other cancer therapeutics are used in combination to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality.[210]
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.

Cancer screening is not available for many types of cancers. Even when tests are available, they may not be recommended for everyone. Universal screening or mass screening involves screening everyone.[129] Selective screening identifies people who are at higher risk, such as people with a family history.[129] Several factors are considered to determine whether the benefits of screening outweigh the risks and the costs of screening.[128] These factors include:
Depending on which hormone is stimulated, cannabis can boost or suppress appetite. For this reason, cannabis oil can help patients with eating disorders or be a natural way to treat obesity. This manipulation of the cannabinoid system is becoming popular, and more research is being done to determine its efficacy for patients with weight concerns. (6)

Diabetic retinopathy (eye problems). This affects the part of your eye called the retina. It is the part of the eye that is sensitive to light and sends messages to your brain about what you see. Diabetes can damage and weaken the small blood vessels in the retina. When the blood vessels of your retina are damaged, fluid can leak from them and cause swelling in your macula. The macula is the part of the retina that gives you sharp, clear vision. Swelling and fluid can cause blurry vision. This makes it hard for you to see. If retinopathy gets worse, it may lead to blindness. Laser surgery can often be used to treat or slow down retinopathy if found early. People who have diabetes should have an eye exam once a year. See your doctor if you have blurry vision for more than 2 days, sudden loss of vision in 1 or both eyes, black or moving gray spots often called “floaters,” flashing lights, or pain or pressure in your eyes.


Hash oil is an extracted cannabis product that may use any part of the plant, with minimal or no residual solvent. It is generally thought to be indistinct from traditional hashish, according to the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV), as it is "the separated resin, whether crude or purified, obtained from the cannabis plant".


The main goal of treatment is to reduce the amount of pain you’re experiencing and prevent additional damage to the joints. You’ll learn what works best for you in terms of controlling pain. Some people find heating pads and ice packs to be soothing. Others use mobility assistance devices, like canes or walkers, to help take pressure off sore joints.

Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.

Dr. Silberstein advises against obtaining a product in states in which CBD oil is not currently legal or regulated. Illegal forms of CBD oil could be spiked with artificial THC which could be very harmful to patients. Additionally, there are legal implications if you attempt to purchase it where it is currently illegal, so it is important to speak with your healthcare provider and check your local and state laws.
In most countries it is forbidden to create oil from cannabis, because cannabis is a controlled substance (i.e. illegal drug). However, CBD, unlike THC, is not a controlled drug, and regulations are minimal by comparison in many places around the world. This has led to the appearance of numerous CBD-rich extracts on the international market. Most of these extracts contain low levels of CBD and high levels of CBD-acid, the natural constituent of the fresh cannabis plant before it is heated.
^ Ettinger WH, Burns R, Messier SP, Applegate W, Rejeski WJ, Morgan T, Shumaker S, Berry MJ, O'Toole M, Monu J, Craven T (1997). "A randomized trial comparing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise with a health education program in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. The Fitness Arthritis and Seniors Trial (FAST)". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 277 (1): 25–31. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03540250033028. PMID 8980206.
A survey led by the McGill University Health Centre in Canada revealed that cannabis use results in an improvement in non-cancer pain, sleep, and mood patterns. In the same survey, it also revealed that ‘high’ and dry mouth were the most commonly reported side effects. People who suffer from cancer also turn to cannabis-related options, including therapeutic grade CBD oil, when the pain of chemotherapy or the disease itself becomes unbearable.

How do you manage arthritis in hands? Arthritis in the hands can make it difficult to move the fingers and to grasp objects. It happens when cartilage wears down over time. Symptoms include joint swelling, pain, and stiffness. Learn more about the different types of arthritis that can affect the hands, some home remedies, medical treatment, and prevention. Read now
Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37 C), in practice, a person is usually not considered to have a significant fever until the temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Fever is part of the body's own disease-fighting arsenal; rising body temperatures apparently are capable of killing off many disease-producing organisms.
Hormones are important agents in sex-related cancers, such as cancer of the breast, endometrium, prostate, ovary and testis and also of thyroid cancer and bone cancer.[69] For example, the daughters of women who have breast cancer have significantly higher levels of estrogen and progesterone than the daughters of women without breast cancer. These higher hormone levels may explain their higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast-cancer gene.[69] Similarly, men of African ancestry have significantly higher levels of testosterone than men of European ancestry and have a correspondingly higher level of prostate cancer.[69] Men of Asian ancestry, with the lowest levels of testosterone-activating androstanediol glucuronide, have the lowest levels of prostate cancer.[69]
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.

Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome, or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia and results in production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, an oncogenic tyrosine kinase.

Radiation therapy is used in about half of cases. The radiation can be either from internal sources (brachytherapy) or external sources. The radiation is most commonly low energy x-rays for treating skin cancers, while higher energy x-rays are used for cancers within the body.[154] Radiation is typically used in addition to surgery and or chemotherapy. For certain types of cancer, such as early head and neck cancer, it may be used alone.[155] For painful bone metastasis, it has been found to be effective in about 70% of patients.[155]
Georgia’s medical marijuana law allows certain qualified persons to legally possess up to 20 fluid ounces of “low THC oil,” which is derived from the marijuana plant. It authorizes the Georgia Department of Public Health to issue a “Low THC Oil Registry Card” to qualified persons, which will prove that they are authorized to have the oil and protect them from arrest. 

Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter -- and allow you to use the glucose for energy.  Without insulin, there is no “key.”   So, the sugar stays -- and builds up-- in the blood. The result: the body’s cells starve from the lack of glucose.  And, if left untreated, the high level of “blood sugar” can damage eyes, kidneys, nerves, and the heart, and can also lead to coma and death. 


Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes. People with diabetes may also be treated by family medicine or internal medicine specialists. When complications arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others.


Hold Harmless. Furthermore, I hereby indemnify and hold harmless The Farm (and its respective owners, entities, employees, agents, and affiliates) against any claim, liability, loss, damage or expense (including attorneys’ fees and other costs of investigating and litigating claims) caused, directly or indirectly by its employees and owners from any liability, unintended consequence, or any other negative repercussion that may result from publicly posting the photos and content from this marijuana study. 

Vitamin supplementation does not appear to be effective at preventing cancer.[116] While low blood levels of vitamin D are correlated with increased cancer risk,[117][118][119] whether this relationship is causal and vitamin D supplementation is protective is not determined.[120][121] One 2014 review found that supplements had no significant effect on cancer risk.[121] Another 2014 review concluded that vitamin D3 may decrease the risk of death from cancer (one fewer death in 150 people treated over 5 years), but concerns with the quality of the data were noted.[122]
^ Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, Han F, Li X, He X, Li Q, Chen J (May 2014). "Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis". JAMA Internal Medicine. 174 (5): 773–85. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.348. PMID 24687000.
Statistically for cancers causing most mortality, the relative risk of developing colorectal cancer when a first-degree relative (parent, sibling or child) has been diagnosed with it is about 2.[58] The corresponding relative risk is 1.5 for lung cancer,[59] and 1.9 for prostate cancer.[60] For breast cancer, the relative risk is 1.8 with a first-degree relative having developed it at 50 years of age or older, and 3.3 when the relative developed it when being younger than 50 years of age.[61]
Depending on which hormone is stimulated, cannabis can boost or suppress appetite. For this reason, cannabis oil can help patients with eating disorders or be a natural way to treat obesity. This manipulation of the cannabinoid system is becoming popular, and more research is being done to determine its efficacy for patients with weight concerns. (6)
Hi, I had ovarian cancer stage 2 and went to do chemotherapy for 16 times in 2014. It came back last year 2016 but I did not do chemotherapy or radiation therapy as suggested by the doctor. I am taking hormone therapy at the moment. I would like to use cannabis oil but which one and how much CBD and how much THC should I take for ovarian cancer? Can anyone give some idea?. Thank you very much.
A 2013 study by Luigi L. Romano and Arno Hazekamp evaluated the efficacy and purity of five cannabis extraction solvents, including ethanol, naphtha (a harsh industrial poison that should be avoided), and olive oil. The authors found comparable efficiency between all the solvents but noted that olive oil, a nontoxic solvent, was better at extracting terpenes along with the cannabinoids. Moreover, according to Hazekamp, “You won’t blow yourself up making cannabis-infused olive oil.”
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) was a clinical study conducted by Z that was published in The Lancet in 1998. Around 3,800 people with type 2 diabetes were followed for an average of ten years, and were treated with tight glucose control or the standard of care, and again the treatment arm had far better outcomes. This confirmed the importance of tight glucose control, as well as blood pressure control, for people with this condition.[86][132][133]
"Total joint replacement" is a surgical procedure whereby a destroyed joint is replaced with artificial materials. For example, the small joints of the hand can be replaced with plastic material. Large joints, such as the hips or knees, are replaced with metals. Total hip and total knee replacements are now commonplace. These can bring dramatic pain relief and improved function.
As of 2017, an estimated 425 million people had diabetes worldwide,[8] with type 2 DM making up about 90% of the cases.[16][17] This represents 8.8% of the adult population,[8] with equal rates in both women and men.[18] Trend suggests that rates will continue to rise.[8] Diabetes at least doubles a person's risk of early death.[2] In 2017, diabetes resulted in approximately 3.2 to 5.0 million deaths.[8] The global economic cost of diabetes related health expenditure in 2017 was estimated at US$727 billion.[8] In the United States, diabetes cost nearly US$245 billion in 2012.[19]
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production.[51] It is significantly less common than the three main types. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin.
Hi Colleen, it's almost a year later and I'm wondering how you're doing. I'm experiencing a recurrence of Stage 3 ovarian, originally diagnosed in 2011. I've decided to get some chemo, not sold on another 6 cycles though. As a new MMJ patient, I'm still going to go through with Rick Simpson Oil (THC+CBD,) and I just joined a program with my local dispensary to get CBD capsules for $2 each when I order them at least 30 at a time. I hope you're doing well!! I'm off to do more research on dosing. **NOTE: If you have ANY experience with CBD treatment of ovarian cancer, PLEASE respond. Thank you!!
To treat diabetic retinopathy, a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels. Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes, and 80% retinopathy after 15 years of the disease. Poor control of blood sugar and blood pressure further aggravates eye disease in diabetes.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.
Rheumatologists have particular skills in the evaluation of the over 100 forms of arthritis and have special interests in inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative arthritis, spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, Still's disease, dermatomyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, osteomyelitis, osteoarthritis, back pain, gout, pseudogout, relapsing polychondritis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, serum sickness, reactive arthritis, Kawasaki disease, fibromyalgia, erythromelalgia, Raynaud's disease, growing pains, iritis, osteoporosis, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and others.
Cancer, an international interdisciplinary journal of the American Cancer Society, publishes high-impact, peer-reviewed original articles and solicited content on the latest clinical research findings. Each issue of Cancer strives to be comprehensive, spanning the breadth of oncology disciplines and providing something for everyone involved in cancer research, risk reduction, treatment, and patient care.
Statistically for cancers causing most mortality, the relative risk of developing colorectal cancer when a first-degree relative (parent, sibling or child) has been diagnosed with it is about 2.[58] The corresponding relative risk is 1.5 for lung cancer,[59] and 1.9 for prostate cancer.[60] For breast cancer, the relative risk is 1.8 with a first-degree relative having developed it at 50 years of age or older, and 3.3 when the relative developed it when being younger than 50 years of age.[61]
The ACMPR requires that all Licensed Producers display total levels of potential THC and CBD on their product labels. Total potential THC is the total amount of THC available when all THCa (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) is decarboxylated. Total potential CBD is the total of CBD available when all the CBDa (Cannabidiolic acid) is decarboxylated. Learn more about decarboxylation here.
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