Arthritis is a group of diseases that cause painful and swollen joints. Osteoarthritis typically develops gradually and can cause pain and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is more aggressive and occurs when the body attacks the joints. RA causes painful, inflamed joints and can result in permanent damage. Certain genes also make some people more likely to develop RA.
Cancer.Net offers individualized guides for more than 120 types of cancer and related hereditary syndromes. Each guide provides comprehensive, oncologist-approved information on: Introduction, Medical Illustrations, Risk Factors, Prevention, Symptoms & Signs, Diagnosis, Stages, Types of Treatment, About Clinical Trials, Latest Research, Coping with Treatment, Follow-Up Care, Survivorship, Questions to Ask the Health Care Team, and Additional Resources.
How do you manage arthritis in hands? Arthritis in the hands can make it difficult to move the fingers and to grasp objects. It happens when cartilage wears down over time. Symptoms include joint swelling, pain, and stiffness. Learn more about the different types of arthritis that can affect the hands, some home remedies, medical treatment, and prevention. Read now
In one study, a 10% weight loss led to a 28% improvement in function. Weight loss appears to alleviate more than just direct mechanical stress, because lowering body mass also improves the course of disease in the hand and wrist joints. Also, diabetics experience more severe osteoarthritis than those without diabetes, so if you have type 2 diabetes, losing weight could improve your arthritis both on its own and by possibly eliminating your diabetes.
Recently, other risk factors have been added to the list of items that may increase cancer risk. Specifically, red meat (such as beef, lamb, and pork) was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a high-risk agent for potentially causing cancers; in addition processed meats (salted, smoked, preserved, and/or cured meats) were placed on the carcinogenic list. Individuals that eat a lot of barbecued meat may also increase risk due to compounds formed at high temperatures. Other less defined situations that may increase the risk of certain cancers include obesity, lack of exercise, chronic inflammation, and hormones, especially those hormones used for replacement therapy. Other items such as cell phones have been heavily studied. In 2011, the World Health Organization classified cell phone low energy radiation as "possibly carcinogenic," but this is a very low risk level that puts cell phones at the same risk as caffeine and pickled vegetables.
Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., Hallak, J. E., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., Martin-Santos, R., … & Guimarães, F. S. (2012). A critical review of the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol: 30 years of a translational investigation [Abstract]. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 5,131–5,140. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22716160
Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.
In type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes), the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce enough, or the insulin does not work properly. Nine out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2. This type occurs most often in people who are over 40 years old but can occur even in childhood if there are risk factors present. Type 2 diabetes may sometimes be controlled with a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. However, treatment also may include oral glucose-lowering medications (taken by mouth) or insulin injections (shots).
Reduced expression of DNA repair genes disrupts DNA repair. This is shown in the figure at the 4th level from the top. (In the figure, red wording indicates the central role of DNA damage and defects in DNA repair in progression to cancer.) When DNA repair is deficient DNA damage remains in cells at a higher than usual level (5th level) and cause increased frequencies of mutation and/or epimutation (6th level). Mutation rates increase substantially in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair or in homologous recombinational repair (HRR). Chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidy also increase in HRR defective cells.
In recent years, ethanol has re-emerged as a popular means of extracting cannabis oil, in general, and CBD oil, in particular. Whereas a tincture made from a cannabis extract could be equal in potency to the original flower, a concentrated version of the same tincture will be much more potent. Today, food-grade grain alcohol is a widely used solvent for creating very potent, high-quality CBD-rich oil, which is suitable for oral ingestion.
While the only current FDA-approved use of cannabidiol oil is for the treatment of intractable epilepsy, it is impossible not to ignore the statements made in this U.S. government patent (or similar statements made in dozens of other scientific publications), or to ignore the fact that the federal Department of Health holds a patent for the medical use of active cannabinoids.
Treatment is generally the same as for non-pregnant women. However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 cGy. In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy. Early deliveries are often used to advance the start of treatment. Surgery is generally safe, but pelvic surgeries during the first trimester may cause miscarriage. Some treatments, especially certain chemotherapy drugs given during the first trimester, increase the risk of birth defects and pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortions and stillbirths).
Anna Syreeni, Niina Sandholm, Jingjing Cao, Iiro Toppila, David M. Maahs, Marian J. Rewers, Janet K. Snell-Bergeon, Tina Costacou, Trevor J. Orchard, M. Luiza Caramori, Michael Mauer, Barbara E.K. Klein, Ronald Klein, Erkka Valo, Maija Parkkonen, Carol Forsblom, Valma Harjutsalo, Andrew D. Paterson, for the DCCT/EDIC Research Group and Per-Henrik Groop, on behalf of the FinnDiane Study Group
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