There are two vaccines currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent specific types of cancer. Vaccines against the hepatitis B virus, which is considered a cause of some liver cancers, and vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are available. According to the NCI, these viruses are responsible for about 70% of cervical cancers. These virus also plays a role in cancers arising in the head and neck, as well as cancers in the anal region, and probably in others. Today, vaccination against HPV is recommended in teenagers and young adults of both sexes. The HPV virus is so common that by the age of 50, half or more people have evidence of being exposed to it. Sipuleucel-T is a new vaccine approved by the FDA to help treat advanced prostate cancer. Although vaccine does not cure prostate cancer, it has been shown to help extend the lifespan of individuals with advanced prostate cancer.
This article offers a general introduction to cancers, consequently the details -- such as life expectancy for each cancer -- cannot be covered. However, cancers in general have a decreasing life expectancy as the stage of the cancer increases. Depending on the type of the cancer, as the prognosis decreases, so does life expectancy. On the positive side, cancers that are treated and do not recur (no remissions) within a five-year period in general suggest that the patient will have a normal life expectancy. Some patients will be cured, and a few others may get recurrent cancer. Unfortunately, there are no guarantees.
Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes. People with diabetes may also be treated by family medicine or internal medicine specialists. When complications arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others.
In Western Europe, 10% of cancers in males and 3% of cancers in females are attributed to alcohol exposure, especially liver and digestive tract cancers. Cancer from work-related substance exposures may cause between 2 and 20% of cases, causing at least 200,000 deaths. Cancers such as lung cancer and mesothelioma can come from inhaling tobacco smoke or asbestos fibers, or leukemia from exposure to benzene.
Georgia’s law is much more limited than some other states’ medical marijuana laws. For example, it does not legalize the sale or possession of marijuana in leaf form, and it does not authorize retail stores to sell marijuana or products made from the marijuana plant. It does not authorize physicians to prescribe marijuana for medical use. It is intended solely to protect qualified persons from criminal prosecution for possessing low THC oil for medicinal purposes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin. It causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were found in children.